A. Background of the Study
Since the Curriculum of 2004 was socialized until KTSP today, English has been taught based on genre approach. The teaching learning process is different from the previous one. In genre-based learning, students learn English through many kinds of texts. Genre itself means text type or kinds of texts. The students are trained to understand, use and produce certain texts, which are realized in four language aspects; speaking, listening, reading and writing.
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Genre, however, cannot be separated in human’s life. In other words, genre is used to communicate with others (Hyland, 2004: 26). In communicating to each other, human being uses language to reach his goal. Language itself is realized as a text, either spoken or written one.
Martin (2000:120) as
cited in Hyland (2000: 26) describes the importance of Genre like this:
In Functional Linguistics, genre theory is a theory of how we use language to live; it tries to describe the ways in which we mobilize the language, each culture chooses just a few, and enacts them over and over again slowly adding to the repertoire as needs arise, and slowly dropping things that aren’t much use. Genre theory is a theory of the borders of our social world, and thus our familiarity with what to expect.
Djuharie (2007: 10) relating to genre, states;
We need a language theory to help language learners understand and are able to produce spoken and written- texts in different context and application. In genre, language is a source to produce meaning.
Based on the description above, it is clear that in learning English, students need to apply the genre concept. The concept can help them learn and master the target language effectively. Through genre, the students are oriented to master certain skills of communicating. For example; in learning recount text. The social function of this kind of text is to retell the events having happened. The students are expected to communicate effectively especially in retelling the past events. The students can be for instance, a good announcer, storyteller and so on. In real life, this text relates to police report, incidents report, and experience sharing. In learning this text, the students have to follow the rhetorical steps of it, such as: to start it uses orientation, followed by sequence of events then the closing by reorientation. In addition, the grammatical features can not be ignored, too. So, the communication becomes more specific, oriented to goal and effective based on the context of culture and situation.
Genre based learning is a new approach introduced to
education world, especially for English learning. Genre has been taught since
the seventh year of Junior High School ( Indonesia SMP).
The students are introduced to some kinds of text such as; descriptive,
narrative, recount/spoof, report and procedure. When the students move to the
higher education, at Senior High School (SMA/MA), the kinds of genre are- added, such as;
exposition, explanation, review, anecdote, news item and etc. The students are
hoped to master English language through genre learning.
Mastering English, however, is a difficult thing for Indonesian learners because it is as a foreign language in
The Indonesian people are not getting accustomed to using it. Genre based
learning is a new concept in Indonesia .
So, the learners/students learning it need to adapt to it and of course the
difficulties are faced; besides the reference books relating to genre are
rarely found. Indonesia
Concerning to this matter, the writer is interested to research the student’s difficulties in learning English through genre, especially in learning recount text. This kind of text in the writer’s opinion is very important to master. It is one of the essential texts learned. It is always taught from the seventh year through the ninth year of Junior High School and even is taught at Senior High School. Mastering this text can also support the communication skill of retelling certain experience, happenings in an effective way. By conducting this research, the writer hopes he can help the students in understanding recount text.